I. Introduction

Alongside the electrification of vehicles, automated and connected driving will shape the automotive industry and related supplier industries in the coming years. The emergence of automated driving is resulting in increased innovation, investment, growth and employment. AI-based vehicle control, innovations in human-machine interaction, and environment recognition technologies offer great opportunities for creating high-grade jobs and additional added value.

Increasing automation, digitalisation and networking also allow for entirely new mobility services and data-driven fields of business. Smart vehicles and infrastructure facilitate the provision of intermodal and seamless mobility, and can contribute to reduced emissions in transport, improved road safety and increased social inclusion.

At the same time, a new and innovative competitive environment is forming. Internet and digital companies from other sectors, as well as new vehicle manufacturers and mobility providers, are entering the emerging market, while established companies are expanding their portfolio. This shows that competition in this sector doesn’t begin with the highly automated vehicle, but rather with advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) in various vehicle classes.

In response to this international and cross-sectoral competition to innovate, it is crucial that technological and legal challenges are identified and resolved in good time. In establishing a legal framework for automated and connected driving with the Act on Automated Driving (level 4) that entered into force in July 2021, Germany has taken on a leading role. Funding is available to help companies engage in both basic research and industry-oriented research, and experimental development. Not least, a variety of test beds have been established in order to check and verify applications. Implementation in real-life contexts and the associated commercialisation are also currently being strongly promoted in other regions of the world.

Given the great significance of the German automotive industry for the national economy, the Federal Government has set itself the goal of making Germany a hub for innovation in automated and connected driving. Besides the creation of a positive legal framework, we will need a productive industrial policy and an innovation-friendly policy environment if we are to achieve this goal.

We want this call for evidence to identify fields of technology and action in automated and connected driving that are relevant for the industry and economic policy and that can help Germany’s economy to achieve a world-leading position in this forward-looking field. The German version is available here. The findings of this call for evidence will support the work of the panel of experts, Transformation der Automobilwirtschaft (“Transforming the automotive industry”), and the ad-hoc working group Smart Car. We also aim to compile specific recommendations for action to strengthen innovation, value creation and competitiveness in Germany’s automotive industry.

II. Notes on responding

Thank you very much for supporting our call for evidence. Your answers will be treated confidentially and not published with reference to any individuals or companies. The answers will be evaluated by the BMWK and by an external service provider that the BMWK has commissioned, as stated in the privacy policy notice. Your answers will help us to identify industrial and economic policies to promote the development of automated and connected driving in Germany, and enable us to identify the strengths of and impediments to our industrial and technological hub as we develop recommendations for action.

The call for evidence will consider all the responses we receive. Mandatory fields are marked with an asterisk (*). You don’t have to answer all the questions. As well as fully completed questionnaires, partially completed questionnaires will also be considered. You can help us by including examples illustrating your assessment in your answers. You are welcome to include documents supporting your statements. These can be uploaded via a link at the end of the questionnaire. Please attach additional comments or suggestions for the future of automated and connected driving in a separate document.

The questionnaire is available online until 30 November 2022.

Owing to the length of the questionnaire, we recommend that you draft your answers in a word processor before entering them into the questionnaire.
You will automatically receive a copy of your completed questionnaire after submitting it. Please enter your e-mail address at the beginning of the questionnaire.
Thank you for your support and for answering the questions. If you have any questions, please contact the department Fahrzeugindustrie, Automatisiertes und vernetztes Fahren (“Vehicle Industry, Automated and Connected Driving”) via the e-mail address CfE-AVF@bmwk.bund.de

Thank you for your support and for filling our the questionnaire.

III. Definitions

Automotive industry
In line with the Classification of Economic Activities (WZ 2008), (Federal Statistical Office), the automotive industry is defined as Economic Activity (WZ29), “Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers”.

Automotive sector
In addition to the above-defined automotive industry, the automotive sector comprises trade, the aftermarket and further suppliers whose main economic activity is not the “Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers” (WZ29). The main economic activity of such companies is, for example, the “Manufacture of textiles” (WZ13), the “Manufacture of rubber and plastic products” (WZ22), the “Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment” (WZ25), the “Manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products” or the “Manufacture of machinery and equipment n.e.c.”. They supply the automotive industry with a share of their economic output.

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)
The questionnaire uses the European Commission’s definition of SME. Accordingly, companies with fewer than 250 employees are considered SMEs.

SAE Levels of Driving Automation (Source: Federal Ministry for Digital and Transport, (as defined in SAE J3016)
Level 0 (no driving automation):

  • The system can only provide short-term assistance by means of acoustic warnings.
  • The driver alone drives and bears full responsibility.
  • Examples: blind spot monitor, lane departure warning.

Level 1 (driver assistance):

  • The system increases convenience and supports the driver in steering or accelerating/braking.
  • The driver alone drives and bears full responsibility.
  • Examples: cruise control, lane departure assistant.

Level 2 (partial driving automation):

  • The system increases convenience and supports the driver in steering or accelerating/braking.
  • The vehicle can occasionally perform driving tasks independently but must be monitored by the driver at all times. The driver bears full responsibility
  • Examples: self-parking or motorway assistants (automatic overtaking and distancing, automatic lane departure assistant).

Level 3 (conditional driving automation):

  • The system drives automatically on approved routes (e.g. motorways). It can automatically initiate overtaking and evasive manoeuvres, accelerate and brake.
  • The driver can occasionally occupy themselves with other things but must be in a position to resume driving the vehicle upon request at any time.
  • Example: the cars take over for defined applications, e.g. driving on the motorway, self-driving features like braking, steering, changing lanes or overtaking (Automated Lane Keeping Systems).

Level 4 (high driving automation)::

  • The vehicle assumes driving tasks on pre-defined routes completely independently. It can also drive without passengers.
  • There is no driver. The driver becomes a passenger and can take over steering if necessary. Should the driver not be in a position to do so, the vehicle must be restored to a safe/minimal-risk condition. The passenger is thus not liable for the violation of rules or for accidents.
  • Example: highly automated driving on set routes, both on motorways and in inner-city traffic.

Level 5 (full driving automation):

  • The system drives completely independently in all traffic areas. It can also drive without passengers.
  • There are no drivers, only passengers. They are thus not liable for the violation of rules or for accidents.
  • Example: the vehicle moves driverless in all road traffic situations; monitoring is no longer necessary. The vehicle completely independently masters even complex driving manoeuvres at crossings, roundabouts or pedestrian crossings.

IV. Questions


Please enter your name and institution (voluntary information):
Please tick the box that applies to you:

Current situation


1. How important is automated and connected driving for the German automotive industry in international competition on a scale of (1) (unimportant) to (10) (extremely important)?

a) today
b) in the future
2. In your opinion, in what areas of automated and connected driving is Germany particularly innovative and competitive? In what areas do weaknesses still persist? (max. 2,000 characters)
3. In your opinion, in what areas of automated and connected driving is Germany particularly innovative and competitive? In what areas do weaknesses still persist? (max. 2,000 characters)
4. In what areas of technology production for automated and connected driving do unilateral dependencies exist? (max. 2,000 characters)
5. What significance does the development and market launch of technologies for automated and connected driving in the automotive industry hold for other industries and sectors? Will the impacts of these technologies change by 2030? (max. 2,000 characters)
6. What role does automated and connected driving play today and what role will it play until 2030 at your company or in your organisation? Please explain your assessment.

a) Today: (max. 2,000 characters)
b) In 2030: (max. 2,000 characters)

Automated and connected driving in an international context


7. What areas of technology and expertise in automated and connected driving are important for a car manufacturer (OEM) to occupy a leading global position? (Please list, max. 2,000 characters)
8. What lessons can Germany learn from the promoting of technologies for automated and connected driving in other countries? Are you familiar with any examples of successful strategies concerning automated and connected driving in other countries? If yes, what points do you see as crucial here? (max. 2,000 characters)
9. In your view, to what extent is cooperation necessary or advantageous in order progress to level 5 in automated and connected driving in international competition? (max. 2,000 characters)


With whom do you collaborate in this field? [Multiple selection possible.]?

Please name examples of collaborations and areas of cooperation. (max. 2,000 characters)
10. How do you handle differences in international regulations on automated and connected driving? (max. 2,000 characters)
11. Would it be useful to establish a separate ecosystem for automated and connected driving in Europe that differs in its central aspects from comparable ecosystems in other regions of the world? (max. 2,000 characters)

12. In your view, what general conditions are necessary for Germany to become a leading hub for innovation in automated and connected driving? (max. 2,000 characters)
13. In your opinion, what are the specific needs for innovation, research and development in automated and connected driving? (max. 2,000 characters)
(max. 2,000 characters) (max. 2,000 characters)
15. Which regulatory conditions do you think are in need of improvement in the field of automated and connected driving? (max. 2,000 characters)
16. What standardisation projects do you think are necessary or in need of improvement in the field of automated and connected driving? How can industry and associations be best supported in these standardisation projects? (max. 2,000 characters)
17. In your opinion, how should the type approval procedures for automated and connected driving best be designed? What obstacles, drawbacks and unresolved issues currently exist in type approval procedures for automated and connected driving? What can the government, testing laboratories, industry and associations do in order to eradicate these obstacles, drawbacks and unresolved issues? (max. 2,000 characters)
18. In your view, is there a need to put (an) automotive operating system(s) “made in Germany/Europe” to use across the industry? (max. 2,000 characters)
19. What role do you think cloud and edge computing will play in automated and connected driving? (max. 2,000 characters)
20. What changes to education or new occupations will be required with regard to automated and connected driving? What could an early reaction look like, especially in view of the skilled worker shortage? (max. 2,000 characters)


Documents supporting your statements can be uploaded in the form of a PDF file using the link below.



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